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Time and Frequency Interleaving for broadcast services in 3GPP Systems


This is a report produced by the 5G-MAG Workgroup CD (Content Distribution - Standards and Architecture).

Current version of the report: v.1.0

Date of publication: 1st December 2023


Time and Frequency Interleaving (TFI) is a key feature for robust broadcast transmissions in time-frequency varying environments, in particular for mobile reception. TFI was considered and evaluated by multiple companies during the 3GPP Rel-16 standardisation of LTE-based 5G Broadcast with significant support from companies. Furthermore, time interleaving has also been proposed for NR MBS Broadcast Services in 3GPP Rel-17. Multiple papers have been published on the performance of TFI for LTE-based 5G Broadcast (BBC, Qualcomm). In summary, a significant number of papers and work from different sources is available showing the performance benefits of TFI and hence, the consensus view within 5G-MAG is that addressing the topic in 3GPP specifications would be valuable to increase the robustness of the broadcast services specified by 3GPP.

To support the specification development in 3GPP, 5G-MAG has produced this 5G-MAG Report summarising key results and potential specification impact to introduce Time-Frequency Interleaving for broadcast services in 5G systems.


5G-MAG welcomes feedback from the community to this document.

If you have comments on the report, please submit them using our GitHub repository for "Request for Feedback"

5G-MAG members may take further actions on this document according to the comments received.


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